Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq Alleviates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease via Antioxidant Activities in C57BL/6 Obese Mice and Palmitic–Oleic Acid-Induced Steatosis in HepG2 Cells

  • 03 Jun 2023
  • Published Resarch - Pharmacy


Salah Abdalrazak Alshehade – Raghdaa Al Zarzour - Michael Mathai - Nelli Giribabu - Atefehalsadat Seyedan - Gurjeet Kaur - Fouad Saleih Resq Al-Suede - Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid - Vikneswaran Murugaiyah - Hassan Almoustafa - Mohammed Abdullah Alshawsh

Published in

Pharmaceuticals, volume 16, issue 1, (this article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Candidates for the Treatment of Obesity), January 2023.



Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent form of liver disease. Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq, a traditional plant in South Asia, has previously been shown to attenuate obesity and hyperglycaemic conditions. Eight weeks of feeding C57BL/6 mice with the standardized O. aristatus extract (400 mg/kg) inhibited the progression of NAFLD. Liver enzymes including alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase were significantly reduced in treated mice by 74.2% _ 7.69 and 52.8% _ 7.83, respectively. Furthermore, the treated mice showed a reduction in serum levels of glucose (50% _ 5.71), insulin (70.2% _ 12.09), total cholesterol (27.5% _ 15.93), triglycerides (63.2% _ 16.5), low-density lipoprotein (62.5% _ 4.93) and atherogenic risk index relative to the negative control. Histologically, O. aristatus reversed hepatic fat accumulation and reduced NAFLD severity. Notably, our results showed the antioxidant activity of O. aristatus via increased superoxide dismutase activity and a reduction of hepatic malondialdehyde levels. In addition, the levels of serum pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-6 and TNF_) decreased, indicating anti-inflammatory activity. The aqueous, hydroethanolic and ethanolic fractions of O. aristatus extract significantly reduced intracellular fat accumulation in HepG2 cells that were treated with palmitic–oleic acid.

Together, these findings suggest that antioxidant activities are the primary mechanism of action of O. aristatus underlying the anti-NAFLD effects.

Keywords: Orthosiphon aristatus; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; atherosclerosis; medicinal plant; high-fat diet; rosmarinic acid.

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